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I recommend Coursera Digital Signal Processing by Martin Vetterli https://www.coursera.org/learn/dsp. He does a good job of explaining the math behind the DFT. Any finite signal can be expressed as a linear combination of complex exponentials - that was the aha! moment for me.
Once you have that under your belt you might find Audio Signal Processing for Music Applications by Xavier Serra a fun course to complete https://www.coursera.org/learn/audio-signal-processing.
I recommend Prandoni & Vetterli's coursera class on Signal processing. They have really made an effort to teach this in an intuitive manner instead of just throwing equations at you. This was the course where I finally really understood Fourier transforms in a visual way.
The other course I recommend is the Audio Signal processing class by Xavier Serra This is a practical class with lots of hands on programming examples and introduction to useful open-source software tools.
A couple of things that people who like this might also be interested in:
Coursera.org is currently running a course called "Audio Signal Processing for Music Applications" which I believe uses python. It's in its second week, so you have time to catch up. https://www.coursera.org/course/audio
http://aubio.org/ is a library that does note onset detection, pitch detection, beat / tempo tracking and various other things. It has python bindings.